Education also involves several latent functions, functions that are by-products of going to school and receiving an education rather than a direct effect of the education itself. private schools benefit the wealthy. This perspective focuses on social interaction in the classroom, on the playground, and in other school venues. But, conflict theorists say, tracking also helps perpetuate social inequality by locking students into faster and lower tracks. When teachers think students are smart, they tend to spend more time with these students, to call on them, and to praise them when they give the right answer. Pygmalion in the classroom. Table 11.1 "Theory Snapshot" summarizes what these approaches say. They consider education as the means of development of individual and society. (1993). Testing and social stratification in American education. A final latent function of education is that it keeps millions of high school students out of the full-time labor force. They then tested the students again at the end of the school year. Tracking: Educational differentiation or defective strategy. In this way, tracking is thought to be good for those tracked up and bad for those tracked down. Functional theory stresses the functions that education serves in fulfilling a society’s various needs. Marxism and educational theory: Origins and issues. 22.2 Public Sociology and Improving Society. All children between the ages of five and Sixteen are obliged to attend school, and during term time school children spend over half their waking hours in the classroom. Fortunately, a notable study of this type exists. They tested a group of students at the beginning of the school year and told their teachers which students were bright and which were not. The conflict perspective emphasizes that education reinforces inequality in the larger society. They also criticize its intention to teach workers the skills they needed for the new industrial economy. In this way, tracking is thought to be good for those tracked up and bad for those tracked down. Some studies, for example, show how children’s playground activities reinforce gender-role socialization. A second function of education is social integration. Booher-Jennings, J. Gender gaps: Where schools still fail our children. The establishment of peer relationships is another latent function of schooling. Once a child starts kindergarten and then first grade, for several hours a day the child is taken care of for free. Students who had been in the smaller classes were more likely in their twenties to be married and to live in wealthier neighborhoods. Girls tend to play more cooperative games, while boys play more competitive sports (Thorne, 1993) (see Chapter 11 “Gender and Gender Inequality”). New York, NY: Routledge. Increasing global commerce and competition provides much of the fuel that drives the call for education reform. Students who had been in the smaller classes continued to have higher average test scores in grades 4–7. One of these is child care. ijiwaru jimbo – Pre-school colour pack – CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. Educational Research Quarterly, 34(2), 3–17. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. A third critique of conflict theory involves the quality of schools. Latent functions include child care, the establishment of peer relationships, and lowering unemployment by keeping high school students out of the full-time labor force. These include socialization, social integration, social placement, and social and cultural innovation. These include (a) socialization, (b) social integration, (c) social placement, and (d) social and cultural innovation. New York, NY: Routledge. Jones, S. M., & Dindia, K. (2004). Global sociology: Introducing five contemporary societies (5th ed.). According to the functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society's functioning as a whole. The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012). However, it does give some of them a different slant and talks about various ways in which education perpetuates social inequality (Hill, Macrine, & Gabbard, 2010; Liston, 1990). Our scientists cannot make important scientific discoveries and our artists and thinkers cannot come up with great works of art, poetry, and prose unless they have first been educated in the many subjects they need to know for their chosen path. The latter tend to lose self-esteem and begin to think they have little academic ability and thus do worse in school because they were tracked down. The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012).Ballantine, J. H., & Hammack, F. M. (2012). British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29, 149–160. Schools teach the three Rs (reading, ’riting, ’rithmetic), as we all know, but they also teach many of the society’s norms and values. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women Educational Foundation. Explain the problems that conflict theory sees in education.

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